Smalley InstituteSmalley Institute

Smalley Institute Members


The Smalley Institute strives not only to advance the field of nanotechnology through world-class research in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering but also to understand and promote the societal aspects of nanotechnology through the study of history, anthropology, economics, and public policy.  The Institute includes 148 faculty and staff members in 21 departments with over 600 students.

The members of the Smalley Institute collaborate on a variety of projects from educating the next generation of scientists to detecting and treating cancer to helping shape government policies on the safe handling of nanomaterials.  To help you find the Smalley Institute member working in the areas that interest you, we have provided a brief research synopsis for each member.  Additionally, you can sort our members by department, RQI/SI Members or nanotechnology discipline.




Faculty Members by Name


Wade Adams

nanotechnology for aerospace and energy applications; polymer physics; structure property relations in high-performance organic materials; rigid-rod polymer fibers; X-Ray scattering studies of fibers and liquid crystalline films; polymer dispersed liquid crystals

Pulickel Ajayan

nanomaterials in energy generation and storage; multifunctional composites; nano-enabled bio-mimetic systems; nanoelectronics; nanosensors; active nanosystems

J. E. Akin

heat transport behavior in nanoparticle composites; computational nanocomposites

  Pedro Alvarez

environmental applications and implications of biotechnology and nanotechnology; bioremediation of contaminated aquifers, phytoremediation, fate and transport of hazardous substances; nanomaterial-bacterial interactions and related disinfection approaches


Aydin Babakhani  


Analysis, design, and testing of integrated circuits and antennas, with applications in high-speed wireless communication, radar, medical imaging, and bio-sensing.

Zachary Ball

transition-metal catalysis; new methodology reaction design

 Richard Baraniuk

compressive sensing, sensor networks and distributed signal processing; manifold-based image processing; multiscale geometric analysis

 Enrique Barrera

thermoset nanocomposites with nanotubes; metal matrix nanocomposites; ceramic nanocomposites; nanotube shielding materials for space applications; materials for radiation protection; ceramic nanocomposites with nanotubes and nanofibers

 Andrew Barron

seeded growth of SWCNTs; development of rational molecular design approach to materials synthesis emphasizing the leap from synthesis to application of nano-based materials;  functionalization of fullerenes and SWCNTs; biological applications and interactions; catalysis and materials applications; nanotube structures for energy applications

Yildiz Bayazitoglu

solution to electromagnetic radiation equation; molecular dynamics studies for nano heat transfer; micro-channel fluid and heat transfer; bio heat transfer; heat transfer and fluid flow; manufacturing and processing of materials

Kathleen Beckingham

SWCNTs in the intact organism; detection and biocompatibility studies in Drosophila


Ed Billups

nanoparticle fuel additives; synthesis and properties of small ring alkenes and bicycloalkenes, fullerenes, SWCNTs, and products formed at low temperature from the reactions of transition metal atoms and small organic molecules; 3He NMR spectroscopy; sidewall functionalization of SWCNTs by free radicals; reactions of carbon nanotubes in oleum and sulfuric acid


 Sibani Lisa Biswal

self-assembling systems in nano and microfluidic systems; colloidal fluids; understanding and designing interactions among nanoparticles, biomolecules, and surfaces to achieve new types of functionality; interfacing biological molecules with inorganic substrates

Janet Braam

regulation and functions of genes encoding calmodulin-related proteins and cell wall modifying enzymes of plants; control of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli

Dagobert Brito

optimal tax theory; economics of defense, energy and law; political economy of solar energy and the implications of nanotechnology

Baruch Brody

medical ethics; intellectual property and biotechnology

C. Sidney Burrus

signal processing, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms, filter design, wavelets and wavelet-based DSP, and technology in education

Suchan Chae

commercialization prospect of nanotechnology

Walter Chapman

molecular simulation, computer visualization, statistical mechanics, and NMR to discover how material properties and structure depend on molecular forces; polymer solutions and blends, associating fluids, confined fluids, and natural gas hydrates; assembly of nano-materials, bio-sensors, and membrane separations; self-assembled gas hydrate nano-structures

John W. Clark, Jr.

electrophysiology (neural, cardiac); mathematical modeling of biological systems; signal processing methods applied to biological systems; nonlinear system dynamics; electromagnetic field theory

Cecilia Clementi

model and characterize protein systems on a realistic time scale; dynamics of polymer translocation through nanopores; statistical mechanics techniques, molecular modeling and simulations to the study of protein systems, with a particular interest in protein folding and dynamics

Vicki Colvin

confined liquids and glasses; porous solids; size-exclusion chromatography; nanopurification of water; uniform nanocrystals; virus crystals as nanocomposite scaffolds; synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals by thermal decomposition of iron carboxylate salts; recycling size-exclusion chromatography for the analysis and separation of nanocrystalline gold


 Ken Cox

 phase equilibria for advanced separations design; sustainability analysis of energy resources; molecular selection and informatics

Steve Cox

biomathematics; theoretical and computational neuroscience

Robert Curl

infrared laser spectroscopy and dinetics of free radicals; mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for biogenic nitric oxide detection; monitoring of ethylene by pulsed quantum cascade laser; formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy

Michael Deem

physical theories of pathogen evolution; vaccine design; Newton's laws of biology; structure, nucleation, and function of zeolites

Michael R. Diehl

physical biology; intracellular trafficking and transport; macromolecular self-assembly; biomotor mechanics; drug delivery; macromolecular systems bioengineering; super-resolution microscopy

Rebekah Anna Drezek

optical spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation for tissue diagnosis; metal nanoshells for cancer detection and therapy, drug delivery, and tissue welding; nanoshells for optical coherence tomography; surface enhanced Raman scattering sensing with nanoshells; quantum dots for biomedical imaging

Rui-Rui Du

quantum mechanical properties of electrons in low dimensional and nanoscale semiconductor structures and devices; ultracold electrons in low-D semiconductors and nanostructures; wavefunction engineering of individual donors for Si-based quantum computers; quantum transport measurement of the Si-nanostructures produced by atom-scale scanning tunneling microscopy patterning technique

Barry Dunning

using Rydberg atoms as a nanoscale laboratory to examine electron-molecule collisions at ultra-low electron energies; new generation of spin-sensitive spectroscopies for investigating geometric, electronic and magnetic properties of bulk surfaces and thin epitaxial films; surface chemistry to thin film magnetism

Paul Engel

chemistry of free radical initiators and inhibitors of polymerization; single electron transfer mechanism in the functionalization of SWCNTs; SWCNT in biocompatible shell-crosslinked micelles

Giovanni Fossati

active galactic nuclei from a multifrequency point of view focusing on the high energy properties

Fathi H. Ghorbel

nanoscale dynamic systems and control, robotics, and biomedical engineering systems; atomic force microscopy nanomanipulation: modeling and simulation; vision-based force sensing and multi-rate haptic controller design for nanorobotic manipulation

Malcolm Gillis

public finance, economic development, natural resources; challenges and opportunities in nano, bio and information technology

Richard Gomer

toxicity of nanomaterials; magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents; fibrosing diseases; fibrocytes; pulmonary fibrosis

Ramon Gonzalez

microbial catalysis in an effort to understand how microbial cells function and how they can be manipulated to produce valuable chemicals; metabolic engineering; functional genomics and systems biology; microbial fermentations

K. Jane Grande-Allen

integrative biomechanics, biochemistry, pathology, and therapies of heart valve disease; extracellular matrix; proteoglycans, organ cultured and tissue engineered surrogates for studies of soft tissue biology and disease

Jason Hafner

single particle spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles; development of a new tip technology for recognition AFM to enhance the ability to probe specific biomolecular interactions; fluid electric force microscopy; biosensing; biomembranes; optical properties in biomedical materials; shape-dependent plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles; biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles

Naomi Halas

optically active nanostructures; nanofabrication strategies to build, orient, and pattern nanostructures into materials and devices; characterize and understand the physical properties of optically active nanostructures, devices, and materials

Jeff Hartgerink

supramolecular chemistry; synthetic collagen mimics; amphiphilic peptides; tissue engineering and regeneration; drug delivery; controlled mineralization of inorganics; self-assembly of nanofibrous alpha-helical coiled-coils; surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectra of peptide conjugated nanoshells; design and synthesis of peptides that bind CNTs; self-assembly of peptide-amphiphile nanofiber scaffolds for dental stem cells

  Peter R. Hartley

applied microeconomics, with a particular focus on energy markets, risky behavior, money, credit and banking

Robert Hauge

high-pressure carbon monoxide process (HiPco) process for making carbon nanotubes; nucleation and growth of vertically-arrayed single walled nanotubes; semiconductor properties of CNT; armchair quantum wire; nanofibers; SWCNT coated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber

   J. David Hellums

applications of fluid mechanical transport phenomena methods in medicine and biology

Joe W. Hightower

chemical and physical properties of heterogeneous catalysts in energy production, chemicals manufacturing, and pollution control

George Hirasaki

interfaces of fluid transport processes; surfactant/foam transport

Brent Houchens

fluid mechanics, heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamics modeling; spectral methods and linear stability analysis with regular and singular perturbation theory (asymptotics) to bridge numerical and analytical models; surface tension effects including thermocapillary driving, and electromagnetic effects including magnetic stirring and damping

Huey Huang

nanoscale structures formed in membranes; micromanipulator studies of vesicles to peptides; application of membranes and peptides in nanotechnologies

Randy Hulet

physics of atoms at ultra-low temperatures; Bose-Einstein condensation
and quantum degenerate Fermi gases; realization of model condensed
matter systems with ultra-cold atoms; superfluidity/superconductivity

John Hutchinson

nanotechnology education

Bruce Johnson

quantum mechanical investigation of the molecular near-field response for molecules adsorbed on silver nanoshells, to understand molecule-metal nanostructure interactions, especially in the context of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS); applications of wavelets to quantum dynamics; dissociative resonance Raman spectroscopy; development of pulsed multiline excitation DNA fluorescence technology

Lydia Kavraki

robotics in microelectromechanical system; bioinformatics

Kevin F. Kelly

plasmonic near field optical microscopy tip for surface enhanced spectroscopy; surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy; atomic force microscopy; scanning tunneling microscopy; scanning probe microscopy; single-pixel camera imaging; nanomachines; polymer nanostructures; carbon nanotubes; novel imaging instruments

Ching-Hwa Kiang

single-molecule dynamic force spectroscopy.; statistical Physics; protein folding; free energy reconstruction using Jarzynski's equality; DNA mechanics; protein-nucleic acid interactions

Thomas C. Killian

ultracold plasmas and fundamental questions about matter at extremely low temperatures; manipulating biological systems with electric and magnetic fields

James L. Kinsey

dynamics of simple chemical reactions or molecular collisions; dynamics of decomposition of photoexcited molecules; photoemission during photodissociation

Anatoly B. Kolomeisky

complex chemical and biophysical processes using statistical mechanics; polymer translocation through nanopores

Junichiro Kono

optical terahertz in semiconductor nanostructures and devices; high operating temperature infrared detectors; high magnetic field phenomena in CNTs; coherence in SWCNTs; vibrational dynamics of nanostructures; magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy; time-resolved far-infrared spectroscopy; infrared photoluminescence spectroscopy; time-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy

Farinaz Koushanfar

novel statistical modeling and optimization of embedded systems in data integrity, hardware security, digital rights management, and sensor-based embedded computations and systems

Christy Landes developing ultrafast multiple-dimensional spectroscopic techniques and applying them to investigate the interpalys of photons, electrons and nuclei in molecules and molecular assemblies in condensed phases

Neal Lane

policy perspective on nanotechnology

Dmitri Laptko Vapor nanobubbles: photothermal interactions at the micro- and nanoscales, imaging and microscopy, heat- and mass-transfer at the nanoscale; plasmon resonance and nanophotonics. Nanomedicine, theranostics for cancer and cardiovascular disease, biomedical nanomaterials, gene therapy, microsurgery and early diagnostics
 Ekaterina Lukianova-Hleb Vapor nanobubbles: photothermal interactions at the micro- and nanoscales, imaging and microscopy, heat- and mass-transfer at the nanoscale; plasmon resonance and nanophotonics. Nanomedicine, theranostics for cancer and cardiovascular disease, biomedical nanomaterials, gene therapy, microsurgery and early diagnostics

Qilin Li

advanced technologies for drinking water purification and wastewater reuse including membrane processes, advanced oxidation, and desalination; fate and transport of environmental colloids and macromolecules; environmental application and implication of nanotechnology

Stephan Link

absorption and scattering spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles and nanowires, plasmon coupling in 1-D assemblies of nanostructures, diffusion of nanoparticles probed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, anisotropic solvation of rod-shaped nanostructures in liquid crystalline solvents, and single molecule imaging of molecular machines

Jun Lou

materials related issues and device developments for MEMS/NEMS applications; size effects in mechanical integrity and electrical properties of metallic nanostructures; interfacial behavior of NT/NW reinforced nanocomposites; novel nano-fabrication methods with implications for bio-nano interactions and sensing applications

Jianpeng Ma

molecular dynamics simulation of supermolecular complexes

Kevin MacKenzie

structure, stability and folding of integral membrane proteins; transmembrane helix associations in signal transduction

Angel Marti

photochemistry of fullerene; quantum dots in biomedical applications; supramolecular chemistry; inclusion compounds in fullerenes; proteins self-assembly

Carrie A. Masiello

carbon cycling; carbon sequestration; climate change; black carbon; terrestrial-river-ocean biosphere interactions

Yehia Massoud

modeling and variability-aware design of mixed signal circuits, systems, and interconnect based on both carbon nanotubes and nanophotonic structures; numerical and analytical modeling techniques of emerging nanophotonic structures such as metallic nanoshells and photonic crystals

Seiichi Matsuda

recombinant biosynthetic approaches to natural product biosynthesis; directed evolution and DNA shuffling to generate new oxidosqualene cyclases; metabolic engineering to produce terpenes

Kathleen Matthews

protein-DNA interactions involved in regulating gene expression; molecular and energetic basis of DNA recognition, assembly, and allosteric changes of regulatory proteins; protein-nanoparticle interactions

James McNew

molecular mechanism of biological membrane fusion; membrane protein expression and reconstitution; intracellular vesicular transport; functional reconstitution of exocytosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Andrew Meade

experimental and numerical aerodynamics; neurocomputing applied to experimental fluid dynamics

Antonios Mikos

bone regeneration; biomaterials; drug delivery; gene therapy; tissue engineering.; biodegradable polymers; scaffolds for cells; guided tissue growth; specific substrates for targeted cell adhesion; stimulants for a desired cellular response; controlled drug delivery; non-viral vectors for gene therapy

Clarence Miller

interfacial phenomena, especially with surfactants; emulsions, microemulsions, and foams; enhanced oil recovery; detergency; environmental remediation

Jordan Miller

biomaterials, multiscale advanced materials, engineered tissue physiology

Daniel Mittleman

colloidal photonic crystals; sources, detectors, spectroscopy, waveguides, imaging, and sensing with terahertz radiation; near-field terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; terahertz plasmonics and metamaterials

Cyrus Mody

history of science, technology and engineering

Emilia Morosan

discovery, synthesis, and characterization of new materials with delicately balanced ground states; itinerant magnets; heavy fermions (HF); charge density wave (CDW) systems; superconductors (SC)

Satish Nagarajaiah

vibrations; dynamic systems, smart structures and sensors; system identification; fault and damage detection; structural health monitoring

Douglas Natelson

nanoscale physics, in particular the electrical and magnetic properties of systems with characteristic dimensions approaching the single-nm scale; nanostructures for single-molecule sensing; nanoscale magnetic sensing; nanophysics of solid state systems; electrical properties of nanowires; transport and electronic correlations in nanodevices; electrically-driven phase transition in magnetite nanostructures; electronic conduction and coherence in nanostructures with molecules; quantum effects in nanoscale electronics

Ronald P. Nordgren

mechanics of solids; offshore engineering; petroleum production engineering

Peter Nordlander

theoretical investigation of the electronic structure, transport, and optical properties of nanostructures using analytical methods such as Plasmon Hydridization theory and numerical methods such as Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) studies

Jan Odegard

signal and image processing; wavelet theory; filter banks and time-frequency analysis with applications to geophysics; multimedia and telecommunication

John Olson

fundamental processes of oxygen transport and storage in mammalian circulatory systems

Marcia K. O'Malley

force feedback for nanorobotic manipulation; haptic interfaces; telemanipulation; human-robot interactions, vision-based force sensing and multi-rate haptic controller design for nanorobotic manipulation

Krishna V. Palem

low energy computing and nanoelectronics; analysis of energy of nanometer CMOS circuits

Ronald Parry

biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, otherwise known as natural products; biochemical reactions associated with specific biosynthetic pathways; biosynthetic gene clusters to produce new compounds with desirable biological activity

Matteo Pasquali

interfacial and biological flows; multiscale modeling of complex flows of fluids; carbon nanotubes in liquids; visualization of single DNA molecules in process flows

Han Pu

theoretical ultracold atomic physics - interesting behavior that atoms and molecules display when cooled at very, very, very low tempertures, a regime ruled by the laws of Quantum Mechanics

Robert Raphael

examination of membrane mechanics; effect of salicylate and other Aspirin like molecules on lipid membranes; liposomal mediated delivery methods

Carl Rau

surface science; nanomagnetism; nanomagnetic devices; non-volatile, nanomagnetic random access memory (RAM) cells; nano-magnetic microscopy; nano-magnetic logic devices; nano-magnetic classical and quantum computing

Rebecca Richards-Kortum

non-invasive cancer detection technologies that use high-resolution, optical imaging; biophysical studies of the light-scattering properties of cells and tissues; use of fiber-optic sensors for in vivo detection of cancer

Scott Rixner

embedded computing; computer architecture; high-performance computing systems

Marc Robert

theoretical, experimental and computer simulation studies of the properties of matter; magnetic nanoclusters and carbon nanotubes; DNA and protein; ferroelectrics; disordered systems; magnetic nanoclusters embedded in metallic or semiconducting solids

Jacob T. Robinson
 Nanofabricated neural interfaces; Optical, genetic and electrophysiological interrogation of circuit dynamics; High-throughout nano-bio devices

Jerome Claude Rose

adsorbents, the ability to tailor surfaces for reactivity; environmental implications of nanotechnology

Ka-Yiu San

new concepts and novel approaches of designing and manipulating metabolic routes using recombinant DNA technology; development of a framework for the systematic analysis of the cellular responses in regulating its metabolic activities upon precise genetic perturbations

Ann Saterbak

undergraduate bioengineering education; coordinating science and engineering education

Doug Schuler

business and government relations – general, corporate political activity, trade policy, and politics; socially responsible management

Gustavo Scuseria

theoretical chemistry; ab initio computational quantum chemistry; density functional theory; development of new methods for molecular electronic structure; applications to nanostructures

Laura Segatori

biotechnology and protein engineering; cell and tissue engineering; protein folding; neurodegenerative diseases

Rouzbeh Shahsavari   

Atomistic modeling; Multi-scale modeling: Nano Mechanics; Predictive modeling for greening materials, Sustainable infrastructure engineering, Properties of cementitious materials.

Gennady Shvets

interactions between electromagnetic waves and matter; high-gradient accelerators of charged particles; novel ignition concepts in inertial confinement fusion; novel nanostructures for nanoscale optical imaging and spectroscopy of chemicals and biomolecules; design of non-reciprocal electromagnetics structures in the microwave and optical regimes

Qimiao Si

theoretical condensed matter physics; strongly correlated electron systems, including magnetic heavy fermion metals, high temperature superconductors, and mesoscopic and disordered electronic systems


Pol Spanos

dynamics and vibrations of structural and mechanical systems under a variety of loads; fatigue and fracture issues of modern composite materials; signal processing algorithims for dynamic effects in biomedical applications

Junghae Suh

engineered bio-inspired nanodevices for the detection and treatment of human diseases

Yizhi Jane Tao

semiconductors for next generation solar cells; structural analysis of chemical complexes involved in virus replication and transcription

Tayfun Tezduyar

computational fluid mechanics; fluid-structure interactions; computer modeling in cardiovascular fluid mechanics; computer modeling of parachutes, moving boundaries and interfaces, finite element methods, stabilized formulations, multiscale methods, air circulation and contaminant dispersion, and fluid-particle interactions

Isabell Thomann Energy, photocatalysis, ultra fast spectroscopy and nanophotonics; applying nanophotonic concepts to advance renewable  energy and photocatalysis

Frank Tittel

quantum electronic devices; laser spectroscopy; nonlinear optics; laser-materials; interactions with applications in medicine and microelectronics

Tomasz Tkaczyk

development of modern optical instruments for bioengineering; novel imaging instruments and systems for the early detection and treatment of cancer incorporating optics, opto-mechanics, electronics, software, bio-chemical materials

Mason B. Tomson

fate and transport of organic chemicals and heavy metals in sediments and ground water; environmental impact of nano-particles; inhibition of mineral scale formation

James Tour

molecular electronics; nanotubes for health applications; chemical self-assembly; conjugated oligomers; electroactive polymers; combinatorial routes to precise oligomers; polymeric sensors; flame retarding polymer additives; carbon nanotube growth; synthetic modifications and composite formation; hydrogen storage on carbon nanotubes; synthesis of molecular motors and nanocars; use of the NanoKids concept for K-12 education in nanoscale science; methods for retarding chemical terrorist attacks

Marina Vannucci

theory and practice of Bayesian variable selection techniques; wavelet-based statistical models and their application; bioinformatics; chemometrics; engineering

King Walters

experimental atomic and molecular physics; physics of surfaces; manifestations of electron spin; spin-sensitive surface probes

Herb Ward

environmental microbiology; microbiology of subsurface systems; factors affecting the transport of microbes in the subsurface; in situ production of biosurfactants; hydrogen peroxide as a source of oxygen for in situ biorestoration of contaminated ground water

R. Bruce Weisman

nanotube electronic structure; near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy; SWCNT spectroscopy; biomedical imaging

Ken Whitmire

inorganic and organometallic chemistry; clusters of the heavy main group elements and transition metals; metal alkoxides, carboxylates and their conversion to metal oxides

Bill Wilson

regulation of cellular processes by sterols; trace analysis of sterols; biosynthesis and metabolism of sterols; NMR of steroids and sphingolipids; Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome; conformational analysis of sterols; synthetic transformations of sterols

Lon Wilson

fullerene, metallofullerene and carbon nanotube nanotechnology for medical applications; metal ions in medicine and biology; coordination chemistry; radiochemistry of the lanthanides and actinides

Michael Wong

nanostructured materials, heterogeneous catalysis, and bioengineering applications; chemical approaches to assembling nanoparticles into functional macrostructures; solar cells; nanoparticle assembly; heat transfer fluids in quantum dot synthesis; catalytic processes of nanoparticles; surfactants in nanoparticle synthesis

Qianfan Xu developing ultrafast multiple-dimensional spectroscopic techniques and applying them to investigate the interpalys of photons, electrons and nuclei in molecules and molecular assemblies in condensed phases

Boris Yakobson

fullerene nanocage for hydrogen storage; electron transport of nanotube-based gas sensors; dislocation dynamics in multi-walled carbon nanotubes; real time microscopy of fullerene evaporation

James Young

optical/photonic devices and their application to solving scientific and technical problems; physical layer of optical fiber communications and optical sensing

Junrong Zheng developing ultrafast multiple-dimensional spectroscopic techniques and applying them to investigate the interpalys of photons, electrons and nuclei in molecules and molecular assemblies in condensed phases

Lin Zhong

mobile and embedded system design; human-computer interaction; computer-aided design for nanotechnology-based computing; power analysis & optimization of IC & systems

Eugene Zubarev

functional organic-inorganic nanostructures; mechanisms of molecular self-assembly; taxol-functionalized gold nanoparticles; amphiphilic gold, platinum, and palladium nanoparticles; optical properties and fluorescence of CdS quantum wires and nanorods

Kyriacos Zygourakis

dynamic behavior of cell populations growing under mass transport limitations; gas-solid and liquid-solid reactions; design of catalytic reactors for air pollution control